Control and Interoperability Challenges in New Energy and eMobility

May 7, 2021 16:09 · 9043 words · 43 minute read

EPSCoR Webinar: Welcome everybody we’re going to wait for everyone to come into the room and we will be starting in just a few minutes.

01:19 - EPSCoR Webinar: Okay I’m just going to get us started.

01:23 - EPSCoR Webinar: Thank you so much for attending today’s webinar my name is Brittany Van Der Weff and I’m the Outreach and Communication Specialist for New Mexico EPSCoR, which is the established program to stimulate competitive research it’s a nationwide program funded by the National Science Foundation.

01:40 - EPSCoR Webinar: I will be your host today, along with Isis or not our website administrator who will be working behind the scenes to make it all so smoothly.

01:48 - EPSCoR Webinar: Few housekeeping items, before we begin, I want to let you know that if you have questions at any point just type them into the Q and A box and Isis will interrupt Mr or Dr Nademi and read them out loud.

02:02 - EPSCoR Webinar: I also want to let you know about the last webinar and our spring webinar series which is on May 26th.

02:10 - EPSCoR Webinar: It’s OPAL-RT for beginners was led by New Mexico smart grid Center graduate students and research assistant rusty nail he’s working with Olga Larova down at animus you registration info can be found in this month’s newsletter and on our website.

02:28 - EPSCoR Webinar: And now. EPSCoR Webinar: I’d like to introduce our presenter for the day we we are super excited about it’s Dr Hamed Nademi who joined the New Mexico Smart Grid Center team EPSCoR Webinar: working at NMSU last year he earned a Ph. D. in Electrical Engineering and Power Electronics in 2014, EPSCoR Webinar: and has experience in the private sector as a senior research scientist at ABB more recently in the academic sector.

02:54 - EPSCoR Webinar: As a research scientist at RPI and where he led industry-sponsored projects focusing on renewable energy resources, autonomous digital power grids, and transportation electrification.

03:08 - EPSCoR Webinar: Dr. Nademi’s research and teaching interest include power electronics applications in micro grids, electric vehicle charging stations, motor drives, and advanced control methods Dr. Nademi, thank you for being with us today, we are so jazzed. Take it away! Hamed Nademi: Yeah thanks a lot Brittany, for your kind introduction and also, I have to appreciate and to be thankful to New Mexico Smart Grid Center for inviting me first and then giving this opportunity to share my thoughts about what I have learned in industry and Hamed Nademi: In academia, for now, a few years.

03:43 - Hamed Nademi: I’m going to share my slides with you and then also I turn off my video and then later I back, can you see my slide now yeah perfect.

04:00 - Hamed Nademi: So Hello everyone. Hamed Nademi: As you know that the title is kind of developmental control development and also the interoperability challenges and open the gaps in a new energy system hands on also not only the new energy from the power grid side from their electrified transportation and mobility systems as well.

04:22 - Hamed Nademi: So the key topics I focus is to just explain to you the open gaps and challenges related to the boss transportation and also the energy and power, energy or your based on my.

04:37 - Hamed Nademi: If you experienced happened in need like you’ve been systems P electric vehicle charging station and so on, and then try to outline.

04:48 - Hamed Nademi: What I would see in the future in terms of the research framework and approach and then includes that includes also the, how do we teach a to be as part of.

05:01 - Hamed Nademi: As an educator in academia, or what would be a key mission of the universities and education on institute’s to for workforce development, for example, to address those kind of challenges.

05:15 - Hamed Nademi: With respect to the future engineers or technologies and then I share some of my research work to address some of those challenges, obviously laboratory work and experiment of wards and also some sample research projects to get some flavor of what I was Hamed Nademi: Trying to explain to you in there, the first two bullets and then the future ambitions with respect to their bus research and also the course curriculums of what would be the.

05:50 - Hamed Nademi: What are the skills in demand from the industry point of view, for the future workforces which are obviously our students and also from the other side, what are the the the key Hamed Nademi: intention, or what would be the goal for the people in academia to integrate those kind of challenges or research challenges into the course curriculums and so on, so Hamed Nademi: On I’m sure most of you have heard the name of smart grids concept, now is the technology.

06:26 - Hamed Nademi: Basically, the integration of to electrical and infrastructure and Information Infrastructures securely we call it a smart grid systems right so when when it comes to the Hamed Nademi: smart grid control system, usually, we need to have the good observer ability and awareness about the dynamics control or the energy resources could be different types of energies Hamed Nademi: showing the completely different characteristics like wind, PV, battery energy storage fly wheel, and also how we can integrate those new Hamed Nademi: distributed energy resources to the what are what we have as an existing unavailable electrical infrastructures and utility grid as well, so.

07:18 - Hamed Nademi: Having said that, there are a couple of key.

07:23 - Hamed Nademi: The revolutionary items, the first one, it seems that we are transitioning and moving towards is sustainable, electronic energy network.

07:33 - Hamed Nademi: Yeah that’s the sustainable electronic energy networks and then later on, I would explain to you what I mean by electronic energy network so Hamed Nademi: Obviously the micro grid or a smart grid systems differ from the traditional grids and mostly because the Hamed Nademi: proxy providing the proximity between the power generation and also the consumers or or the power use components that are smart network.

08:04 - Hamed Nademi: The smart term of the smart grid systems main universe, to the to have a smart network, we need the wireless communication systems.

08:13 - Hamed Nademi: Why, the reason is that for energy management and also the load side demand estimation, which is quite interesting and and required to achieve this bi directional powered flow so as part of the integration of the a lot of distributed energy systems DRs. Hamed Nademi: The same for the transportation systems, we are moving from the inner functionality to the interactions is mostly Hamed Nademi: Bidirectional power and energy flow and the interaction between the different systems and therefore we need to have the communication and then energy management, how to, as I said that get Hamed Nademi: Good observe ability among the multiple resources for the large scale system even it’s more complicated, and also the autonomous operation Hamed Nademi: which includes also the advanced automation systems, because it seems that the control is kind of enabling technologies, but here I’m focused on there Hamed Nademi: More interactions between the pownall phonics as enabling technology and the control domain admins control systems to talk about some of the Hamed Nademi: Existing open the gaps in this three and also obviously that’s where the university should collaborate and to get a partnership with the industry, private sector or power industries to tackle to Hamed Nademi: address those solution.

09:45 - Hamed Nademi: So, therefore, as you will see, for example in this picture from the generation side view more and more rely on the power of electronics, right? The tremendous Hamed Nademi: Number of a huge number of power electronic converters should be provided the renewable resources that’s kind of grid forming Hamed Nademi: technologies. And then from the load side or demands response they’re more electricity produced by power electronics, is supplied or consumed by electronic sources so it’s all about electronics that’s why Hamed Nademi: The current integration or integrated a grid as well, so, and this kind of new features characterize the different design different Hamed Nademi: Researchers was to be done Hamed Nademi: compared to what has been used, for example in even in last decade or last two decades, so, as I said that.

10:44 - Hamed Nademi: How we can manage the whole grid with the huge number of power electronics converters kind of wrote to us? Because come on, like the existing or traditional power systems, Hamed Nademi: which are heavily rely on high inertia component like electric missions in particular synchronous generators now the power, electronics, based in a building the future grids so.

11:08 - Hamed Nademi: That would be and also there would be the huge number of heterogeneous and also non-synchronous players So you see, Hamed Nademi: In this picture, for example, the V, at least the industry or V, based on the last decade experience in the field, we learned that the response, for example, from the wind farms regardless whether that’s a land based wind Hamed Nademi: plant or off sure when it does solar systems, they all have some different characteristics either their city or state and also, in particular, the transient response and then Hamed Nademi: The root cause analysis report for a couple of incident happened different continue in different areas of the devote in last five six years at this I have Hamed Nademi: experienced the wind farm the solar power outage that happened for those.

12:04 - Hamed Nademi: Wind and also the largest get solar systems was something related to the control protection and then leading to the minus stable situation. So for these future systems, how does the the this this trend, or disintegration, Hamed Nademi: challenge is going on with the really high pace can can challenge the stability analysis and then what would be the tools that we need? Hamed Nademi: To develop to to analyze and assess the stability margin as limits for the whole system from the age.

12:42 - Hamed Nademi: Like the local stability for each single of these distributed energy resources and then, when you integrate as a whole, and then we call it the system, what the leverage or tool we need to develop to precisely Hamed Nademi: observed stability margins to avoid to see the whole system.

13:05 - Hamed Nademi: Pushing towards the instability and then the requirement for that, for the requirement means that the requirement for solar is completely different from the wind, so the standardization in general is is one of the key point.

13:19 - Hamed Nademi: And that’s why we need to move forward from the Hamed Nademi: The sub component or equipment design towards the more system problem, because this is the more system problem system engineering and not even the system engineering there Hamed Nademi: system integration challenges, so the good solutions, therefore, demand for the whole system thinking so it means that we need to design the system hands in hand with the equipment or component designed so for the power, electronics, usually so before that the Hamed Nademi: Reasonable research framework on approach and also the teaching your style are so is that the definitely the electrical energy faces the huge challenges, but for us to be in academia.

14:10 - Hamed Nademi: Is that there are a big opportunities actually so to do the more and more R & D is what is so called the experiment, the exponential technologies are actually Hamed Nademi: encompasses the PV systems, for example, the wind, the batteries, the information technologies, the communications and then the power electronics storage devices and analyses so.

14:36 - Hamed Nademi: Today I’m more rely on the power electronics rule and then this energy storage what and then how we can take advantage of data analytics artificial intelligence techniques because we need Hamed Nademi: Those kind of solutions, this system as a system is kind of multidisciplinary.

14:56 - Hamed Nademi: Read the huge interactions so it’s not just one single or two domains that’s the interdisciplinary challenge, and then we have seen the some Hamed Nademi: negative impact or disruptive impact would be from the old from the operations planning regulatory agencies and then their stability resiliency and then the cost right if we if all the countries Hamed Nademi: States set the target to achieve, for example, this amount of green energy, the produced power from the renewable generation by 2030 2035 or hundred based renewable energy systems by 2040 or 2050.

Therefore, we need to also Hamed Nademi: To be the technology itself should be more compatible with the existing one, we have to compete, the fuel or coal fire the power generation in terms of costs, for example, or decides, while you so I would also more emphasis here on the stability.

16:01 - Hamed Nademi: For example, and also did operation disruptions aspect by by this huge integration of the the new distributed energy resources so.

16:13 - Hamed Nademi: So far, we have made a really good advancement or progress in Hamed Nademi: manufacturing, for example, for power electronics white band gap semiconductor power, electronics, they have made tremendous progress in the 3D manufacturing additive manufacturing are helping this this capabilities are helping to achieve Hamed Nademi: our goal. However, in terms of control automation and also the integration theories, there are lags so.

16:43 - Hamed Nademi: At both control system design and also the how to integrate those kind of systems, showing it completely different characteristics.

16:52 - Hamed Nademi: From the system point of view. For example, the the graph or the picture you see on the right side that’s the real time measurement based on the wind land based the wind farms in a state of the Hamed Nademi: state of Oklahoma. So in I believe in 2015 there was a power outage huge power outage in the base for the Oklahoma wind farm and, mainly, it was the you see during the incident, this is just a one time period or time interval for a couple of seconds.

17:33 - Hamed Nademi: For the data of the voltages and then you will see the red graph shows the what the escape the existing escaped our system supervisory control data acquisition system in that vein for detected and then you will see the, for example, based on the Hamed Nademi: phaseal measurement unit central phasers, for example, when we plotted afterward and then captured to to to overlap this escape measurement data acquisition system with the phaseal measurement units showing by by the blue Hamed Nademi: graph or curve, then you will see how bad the existing data acquisition system could could detect the magnitude, for example, of the Hamed Nademi: disruptions or changes could be the frequency harmonics could be the disruption or disturbances on the lower voltages and so on, and then because of these the production system, for example, detected some Hamed Nademi: Our over voltage under voltage over frequency or under frequency in dispute form and then Hamed Nademi: Try to shut down the entire power production, so this is the real challenge because they’re they’re being defined wind turbine usually our engine cluster of 7 on cluster of infer turbine like five six wind clusters and each cluster includes the 10 to 20 Hamed Nademi: Individual wind turbines why they’re there they’re weaned shows the very fast Hamed Nademi: reactions, because the faster reactions or dynamics, it could be, because that’s the periodic renewable energies right and then Hamed Nademi: Especially for the larger scale wind, the emerging oscillations either, it could be in the form of Hamed Nademi: harmonics or in the form of what we call the resonance harmonics and then in terms of the operation of these obviously the wind turbine shows almost zero in your show, and then, when you compare with the traditional synchronous generator that that’s really significant and then Hamed Nademi: We have you need to have the coordinated disconnections schemes to to be also Hamed Nademi: In line with that time scale, we are talking about, and then to detect those oscillations or harmonics, for example, to avoid the power outage.

So, these are the key challenges in another example. For example, if I Hamed Nademi: tell you, for the largest solar power plant in August 2016 in southern California, there was the as a result of fault.

20:24 - Hamed Nademi: There, there was a 1200 megawatt power outage that’s a significant power outage the the.

20:31 - Hamed Nademi: Initial reason was because of the ground fault or voltages happened, due to the false right, and then the the in the beginning, they thought was the production system wrongly perceived under frequency conditions for this.

20:49 - Hamed Nademi: Solar systems and then resulting some impose some disturbances distortions into the voltage very for and then caused by by, for example, fully transparent and then Hamed Nademi: The production system shut down to 1200 megawatts However, for this, and afterwards the almost 8 to 10 months, or almost one year, the root cause analysis report released, and then you can lead to look at the Hamed Nademi: Reference I put at the bottom of this slide in June 2017 first of all, the PD manufacturers deployed in that Hamed Nademi: Plant, we are programmed to seize the output only because of the under frequency if the frequency goes down below 57 hertz right.

However, Hamed Nademi: when the Western Electricity Coordinating Council WCC released the root cause analysis they discovered that the node frequency drop to just 59. 86 hertz for this event so.

21:54 - Hamed Nademi: You know that that’s because of the the the in 2015 16 for the PV manufacturers that designed for the control for the protection system, but based on their smaller scale or based on the what is so-called the traditional Hamed Nademi: Positive negative zero sequences, and the component to be incorporated into data protection scheme, the design partitioning scheme for the inverters and later on afterward Hamed Nademi: Each State like New York California Hawaii and some Hamed Nademi: Other countries also, it is the same thing happened, for example in Australia, with the same root cause analysis and then there was a huge R&D budget to do the more RDS.

22:40 - Hamed Nademi: And like two years ago, two and a half years ago, one of the white to use it paper standards 1547 Hamed Nademi: and received a huge or major revision to just include this kind of Hamed Nademi: Recommendations or guidance for PV manufacturers. So, if you are learning you’re still but still, the standardization is one of the key challenges that obviously requires a lot of R&D before Hamed Nademi: Providing any recommendations. So the reason is that, for these renewable energy systems do today fast dynamics and the response, Hamed Nademi: it’s really hard to estimate the frequency by just measuring the voltage and current because, as I said that what happened in.

23:21 - Hamed Nademi: The incident happened in the wind in Oklahoma was basically lack of or pool data acquisition system based on the skater technology Hamed Nademi: deployed in that plant so that’s is the challenge the estimation of the frequency changes is still challenge and later, you will see Hamed Nademi: Those challenges, especially for the transients usually introduce or impose some the harmonics and then Hamed Nademi: transferred or transform in the sense of the resonances and then to keep track of these large bandwidth of the harmonic spectrum for the control system that that’s really challenge that’s why we need to take lots of measurements.

24:06 - Hamed Nademi: Therefore, the measurement device or equipment should be more capable and also how to process so fast those measurements to send the Hamed Nademi: Appropriate signal to the control and production system monitoring system, for example. So another actually a good thing, derives their industry and academia, in particular, the last Hamed Nademi: few years to go more and more on real time model development real time testing before even developing the prototype lab escape and then do the more detailed analysis is that.

24:44 - Hamed Nademi: There was a meeting between the regulators utilities agencies with the Federal energy regulatory Commission.

24:54 - Hamed Nademi: Nearly three years ago in 2018 and then it was the highlights on the news that they really demand is strongly need for Hamed Nademi: Real-time models to better manage the distributed energy resources, because, as I said that due to those incidents Hamed Nademi: divorcing happened is that to not have the good visibility or awareness, for the system and also for the operators about the what’s down on each Hamed Nademi: situation at the age side of each distributed energy resources and then did to get the know the dynamics of the system.

Therefore, we need to have the real-time Hamed Nademi: Data or real time information to do the proper action accordingly within the short or very fast time we have to avoid Hamed Nademi: Power disruption or to avoid or preventing cascading connection of the failures or false. So that that’s good enough for us to do, the more and more oranges and then there for engineering students, because it seems that there is a huge demand for the industry sector private sector to Hamed Nademi: to recruit the future workforces those who already gain this kind of information at least into some level to be able to deal with to analyze to simulate to model to understand and comprehend Hamed Nademi: The new energy and transportation systems, so the after all, so there.

26:33 - Hamed Nademi: It is turned out that the learning should be actually based on the real time testbed development, so this has been the new norm for a few years for education sector as well to fulfill their industry Hamed Nademi: Expectations of the new engineers and also the technologies, so the technologies, I would emphasize that because, even for devote future workforces they, of course, they should have the technical knowledge about the domain, but how to Hamed Nademi: make the best use of those technical knowledge with respect to the emerging technologies and then the management skill, it is.

27:15 - Hamed Nademi: Another challenge for the future workforces to get to know their management skills, in addition to the just the technical Hamed Nademi: content of the each domain if its power its information technology data analytics or some other communication or some other domains so.

27:36 - Hamed Nademi: For example, what I have seen personally when I was working in upstate New York, for example, the nikon new your power authority.

27:46 - Hamed Nademi: And I think two years ago, three years ago they established here what is so-called the AGILE system, the New York advanced breed innovation lab for energy.

27:55 - Hamed Nademi: And then you will see, they put a lot of real-time as simulators from the RTDs from the OPAL-RT from the python or larger scale a small set escape.

28:07 - Hamed Nademi: Real-time simulators to be able to simulate the the mainly the transitent and operations of the Hamed Nademi: New Energy and transportation systems in a real time manner, means that very close to the day of physical counterpart as much as we can, and then in this way we can generate much more.

28:27 - Hamed Nademi: data sets the measurements and then we can develop some control algorithm based on the real time measurement and then by incorporating the the fields of measurements and learning, then at least we can achieve some optimal Hamed Nademi: Solutions in wide variety aspects in different domains to to achieve the smart grid system to work in reliable and Hamed Nademi: To achieve the resiliency as well, and so that that’s already been deployed in the state, federal, and also the private sectors.

So universities also is getting used or getting used to Hamed Nademi: deploy more and more these real time simulators in the research and also, it could be incorporated easily into the the the lab courses, lab component, and also the course curriculums because these are the difference is set for students to first understand.

29:28 - Hamed Nademi: The different systems, different aspects of the systems, in terms of the analysis synthesis and then the validation domains. So what I hear outline is that Hamed Nademi: We all did requirement we have we have two requirements from, the most left and right side, one is the modernization. And then, Hamed Nademi: How we can incorporate those new technologies into the existing assets infrastructure we have electrical infrastructure and utility creates right, and then the other thing is that we have to Hamed Nademi: reimagine the future of the dose fast-moving technologies, as I explained power electronics, is one of them communication, IT analytics, Hamed Nademi: storage technologies.

And then, Hamed Nademi: It that the good thing is that, in collaboration with industry, universities and industries, they know now the open challenges and the existing gaps, so therefore we need to even develop some tools some models Hamed Nademi: To to to be able to update and with the facility capability to to reuse them for Hamed Nademi: multiple applications and then for each specific systems, we need to have the design basis, obviously, so to Hamed Nademi: Prove that one, we need to look at the the performance as a whole system and did the reliability of the service that’s the the the key items should be taken into account.

31:03 - Hamed Nademi: When we are in the design phase processes and implementation, and then we need to move forward with the real time simulation and implementation Hamed Nademi: To get better understanding about the, for example, the controller when the controller the controller integrated into the real time model to perform how these dynamics can change and then what the controller can Hamed Nademi: respond a period. And then that’s the closed-loop system, then the testing of technical solution should actually refine an update our design based says the tools and models and then in this way we can achieve the best for example PV model to Hamed Nademi: To be able to test the PV to simulate the PV system in a steady state in larger scale is smile escape in greed for me and greet following Hamed Nademi: Operating point, and so on, so based on what I explain, when I was working at ABB in Europe in 2018.

In summer ABB announced the one of the fast EV charges called Terra 53 CJ Hamed Nademi: It was mainly designed for operating like 350 kilowatt.

32:21 - Hamed Nademi: To be sufficient for the distance driving distance of 125 miles of range, and then the charging time should be just 8 minutes right and then Hamed Nademi: This technology or charging station intended to be used in the highway, restroom stop or petrol station something like that and also for, as you see, not only for the the the Hamed Nademi: medium or lightweight.

32:49 - Hamed Nademi: vehicles for the heavy duty vehicles, also for transit busses, for example, could be operating. So I use those kind of Hamed Nademi: The the requirements and then try to develop the power converter, based on my own idea different from there, what what’s the commercial is available for the fast charging station with that requirement and then try to establish the Hamed Nademi: The common DC bus, as you will see the common DC bus can can feed the Hamed Nademi: EV batteries can charge it and then the battery energy storage could help what is so-called the vehicle to grid technologies to Hamed Nademi: Help the utility grid in terms of the voltage support functionality as well, and then the solar as well.

So that’s kind of bi directional the power system.

33:40 - Hamed Nademi: The one of areas of design of many actually technology suppliers for the fast charging station was that, due to the the capacitor banks at the common DC bus, Hamed Nademi: To come ask you obviously there is the there are some fluctuation on the capacitor banks and then those fluctuations can integrate with the switching phenomena of the power electronics and then it Hamed Nademi: transformed some of those fluctuation in the form of the disturbances on harmonics and then what have observed in that time was to to see easily, then the batteries for the EVs are Hamed Nademi: Getting heated and then obviously the negative consequences to reduce or undermined the lifetime of the battery for the EVs at the best case, and then, Hamed Nademi: How we can also did some tests, based on.

So here I use the advanced two layers control system based on the predictive control systems to adapt those kind of harmonics from the DC site and also how to optimally share the power among there. For example, Hamed Nademi: take advantage of the power produced by the solar or to achieve the awakened to greed functionality or technologies to support the utility grid. So that here, you will see, for example, the details blocks for the Hamed Nademi: predictive controller to first grab those harmonics to detect the harmonics are severe in terms of they’re pushing towards the unstable Margie for the charging station system and also how to optimally.

35:32 - Hamed Nademi: share the power among different sources. So I did also using the some of the old time band controller hardware in the loop.

35:41 - Hamed Nademi: To evaluate the fast reaction and effective validation of the utility based on the OPAL- RT simulator. As you will see one was the commercials controller and one was the design controller to Hamed Nademi: To be able to benchmark with what’s already available in the commercialized controller folder EV batteries, for example. And then you would see that the, this is the the real time simulations.

36:08 - Hamed Nademi: You know that for the charging stations that usually, we have to constant current charging and then here at the point like 0. 8 seconds, there was a request from the utility emulated to support the voltage from the fleet side, and then the battery Hamed Nademi: energy storage helps the EV charging to Hamed Nademi: reduce the current and then move towards the pulse discharging mode and then the current, which is the blue measurement current, actually follows the reference current.

And then the current from 88 amps Hamed Nademi: The nominal charging the constant charging amps for the battery went down to like 20% and then now is like 68 amps. Hamed Nademi: And then the battery energy storage discharge to lower the AC grid current to help and support the voltage to avoid the.

37:16 - Hamed Nademi: unstable situation for example during some sometimes have seen during the design phases, and then the prototyping off that fast charging stations, for example, this was just the one example from ABB but Hamed Nademi: Many fast charging charging station manufacturers of companies have seemed a bit same.

37:39 - Hamed Nademi: And oscillations and then the interactions between the DC link right there, they are they connected easy batteries and also, Hamed Nademi: A form it as a mockery defaulted to solar inverter and also the the battery and as your storage system also could challenge those push those.

37:55 - Hamed Nademi: Stability margins to our state the severe situations and then their next project idea into the.

38:05 - Hamed Nademi: New York state what was the there was a request from there are many utilities in terms of the PV systems, for example, if the PV inverter place in long distance from the utility side, and then the the utility.

38:20 - Hamed Nademi: yeah let me show this this utility circuit that’s the actual circuit I got from the Hamed Nademi: National Grid opposite New York and then they’re very interested to do some more and is if the PV, for example in the level of one megawatt place seven miles away from the utility circuit breaker.

38:41 - Hamed Nademi: And then they have seemed at their unsynchronized opening or closing of the utility circuit breaker of why the PV Hamed Nademi: plant or PV system or stealing the unintentional by landy and then it could cause severe damage to the power electronics device either the loads or the utility equipment and then Hamed Nademi: each to the power shut down because they realized that maybe the Hamed Nademi: The spikes in particular under the voltage of a forms after unsynchronized the closing of the utility circuit breaker could put the whole system in an unsustainable situation.

So then we modeled this is the system simplified obviously data, the utility distribution grids and then, Hamed Nademi: did just tested to commercialize PV inverter you see on the top one was the 500 kilowatt another one one megawatt and then.

39:43 - Hamed Nademi: Did the testing with the the controller developed here, and then the commercialized controller to see, for example, if you can see, at the.

39:53 - Hamed Nademi: Bottom two waveforms on the right, the most left side you would see some certain area, here we have yeah here, you see, there was four, Hamed Nademi: Five cycles, I believe the utility circuit breaker the green block, you will see, is opened and then reclosed in a reader phase shift with the asynchronous manner and then Hamed Nademi: You will see on the most right side the PV inverter and also the utility voltage got huge spike their current spikes are Hamed Nademi: expected to be manageable for utilities, but anyway, there are huge spikes on the PV inverter side and the utility voltage, especially if you are in the long distance from the utility towards the end of the distribution system.

40:43 - Hamed Nademi: There is stability concerns are quite serious. So this shows that the utilities are unable, actually to manage the injections of the larger scale PV generations to to avoid deteriorating the voltage profile and then it comes to the how we can communicate and send their trip signal or Hamed Nademi: open or closed their utility breaker and communicate with the PV inverter or PV farms.

41:12 - Hamed Nademi: What would be the technologies should be the communication based on the fiber optics obviously it shows a huge interest, but the cost is another challenge so utilities are still are looking for some other Hamed Nademi: Communication protocols to to send signals, for example.

41:33 - Hamed Nademi: When this situation happens and then avoid damaging the physical damage of the PV inverters you know that the PV inverters there are some capacitor banks to capacity turbines can easily be exploded if there would be data huge Hamed Nademi: voltage sparks, for example, so these are the key challenge, especially when it comes to huge integration of the generated Hamed Nademi: power from the largest scale wins so and then for the, for example, the electric way I put just the lighting last month or two months ago, the US Department of Transportation just the Hamed Nademi: ranks all the 50 states of the US in terms of the leading or enabling or how they force eases the integration of the EV Hamed Nademi: Electric vehicles usage.

The California, for example, was on the top right, but even there wasn’t one report last two, I think, two years ago, three years ago that they just started the charging stations Hamed Nademi: demands in just in the city of the LA they just claim that uncontrolled EV charging stations may push the overall system.

42:56 - Hamed Nademi: The southern power grid system to to achieve in the level of beyond the greets capacity in southern California so.

43:03 - Hamed Nademi: The current trend shows that by 2030 That was the conclusion of that assessment report by 2030 in Delhi and energy load for just electric vehicle charging station exceeding I believe it was less than 20% like 18%, 17% of the entire Hamed Nademi: generation capacity, so we are encouraging to to achieve to to use more and more easily, but obviously we need the more charging stations and then from the grid or again from the system perspective, Hamed Nademi: that’s also huge that’s a good thing, but there are also some some challenges, so I have also, they will have some bi directional power electronics Hamed Nademi: converter for the fast charging stations to to achieve the, for example in the range of the battery voltage in the range of 270 up to Hamed Nademi: 430 the charging current average maximum 24 amps so that that’s the requirement, based on demand and the power in terms of kilowatt was just 6.

6 kilowatt and the data or just obtained by Hamed Nademi: Public information from the General Motors and then try to use different types of the semiconductor devices if we need to go move forward with the high frequency, then the the white bag of semiconductors and should be used, and then achieved a battery charging curves, for example, Hamed Nademi: What it would be expected, at least for the large escape fast charging developments and then based on what I just explained to you earlier for that Hamed Nademi: Experience of heating up the EV batteries for one of the fast charging stations developed a few years ago by one of the manufacturers, then I did Hamed Nademi: A little bit research in terms of how we can get best control the DC link for for the output of the EV battery power converters, and then to Hamed Nademi: Do more research, for example, what would be the consequence of the oscillations from the DC link to the Hamed Nademi: To achieve to the to the AC current as well, so the some oscillations could also transfer if that’s the direction on which is expected to be in the future, there are solutions could move forward towards the retail utility grid, and then the AC current also can get some some Hamed Nademi: oscillations, you will see on the top the blue is just the oscillations happening, for example, Phase A from the utility AC current and then we need some stability Hamed Nademi: tools or theory or control design can help us to, for example, activate their stability loop when the system just reaches towards the unstable region, Hamed Nademi: region, and then we can, for example, at the bottom, you see, we did stability loop activation they can download those oscillations and then try to keep their, for example, AC current from the utility grid Hamed Nademi: oscillations at least or variations between the quite, for, as it is intended and then you will see vice versa why interactions from the ev battery from the solar.

46:26 - Hamed Nademi: At the other side of the micro grid system towards the charging stations, then the DC voltage, you will see it’s just exponentially increase, and then we need some a stable or stability schemes to be able to dampen its most of those kind of oscllations to their certain level to avoid.

46:47 - Hamed Nademi: The honest instability and then for the solar, wind charging stations, as I said that the control solutions are quite Hamed Nademi: Demanding and Hamed Nademi: Effective. For example, we have some leverage is to do some advanced control developments to damp those oscillations without placing an expensive or Hamed Nademi: spacious features, in particular, the passive features to damp the harmonics.

47:19 - Hamed Nademi: And then we can also use the learning-based supervisory control algorithms taking advantage of their mission learnings because those kind of mission and needs or data analytics technologies helps to measure, a lot of a lot of Hamed Nademi: Data measurements and then present the comments signals quite rapidly and then for the advanced control systems definitive when it comes to the implementation, the computational burden is is the the huge thing. And then, Hamed Nademi: This is study I did shows that the using the machine learning based controller solutions can also achieve their competition or better than reaching their requirements and then you can send that the comments signal to the the section.

48:09 - Hamed Nademi: They intended or the section of interest to get that comment so fast so.

48:17 - Hamed Nademi: And then, even for the motor drive application, which obviously that’s the power, electronics, we are moving to the integration of the Hamed Nademi: drive technologies, for example, that’s the one of the Rockwell automation and the towards the electric motors, for example, for the EV power trains and then you will see, for example, this is the Hamed Nademi: real picture from the zoom and 60-kilowatt electric vehicle traction drive and then, when you open the cover this section includes by the red circle shows the exposing drive electronics, so the even the electric motor and electronics and the control systems are Hamed Nademi: are trying to be integrated more and more, and then the compact design, as I said that the manufacturing 3D manufacturing additive manufacturing should help the power electronics Hamed Nademi: area to achieve the compact design.

49:18 - Hamed Nademi: For the electric vehicles and then I did some stability concerned for the another power grids, but for the Hamed Nademi: commercial aircraft what is so-called the more electric aircraft is to remove their hydraulic pneumatic equipment and then put on more and more again power converters so Hamed Nademi: I did some you know that for the power system of the airplanes are working in the high frequency, for example, for the Boeing 747 or Airbus 383 day they use.

49:55 - Hamed Nademi: The frequency in the range of 400 to 900 850 hertz and then their power quality is huge, especially when you.

50:06 - Hamed Nademi: integrate more and more power that converters into the power grids of the aircraft, then I developed the power converter, to also compensate some harmonics and then to avoid the stability and instability for the aircraft as well, so did some also I have performed some.

50:28 - Hamed Nademi: Earlier, the experiments using the emulating or simulation of the Boeing 747, for example, and then they another Hamed Nademi: application could be dead offshore wind farm the offshore wind is very interesting because the closet have been turbine Hamed Nademi: interactions with the the converters placed on the offshore, and also in other converters to convert the DC to AC compatible AC grid on the land or short.

50:57 - Hamed Nademi: These interactions of these three components even read the cable is is quite interesting and then in North Sea in Europe in UK, Germany in Scandinavian countries.

51:09 - Hamed Nademi: Some incident happened in China also so a US also in North East in particular is trying, there is a huge potential for the offshore wind so, we need to do, the more and more analysis own because of these interactions of the different power electronics equipment.

51:31 - Hamed Nademi: So, for example, this slide just showed, one of the harmonics or resonance frequencies happened around the this was for the like believe to Europe Hamed Nademi: With the 50 years and then you see the tourism answers are just about the fundamental frequency 50 years one is the high frequency 63 and then below the fundamental frequency, so how to Hamed Nademi: control or predict this kind of frequencies that challenges that is not just low frequency harmony, it could be in the range of their data kilohertz so like up to 10 years so Hamed Nademi: Getting the observer ability good observer ability written divide frequency band is another huge as well, so then here I just use the Hamed Nademi: machine learning based technologies to detect such kind of fast resonances or harmonics so it seems that anyway, we need to have the the lot of measurements and then the measure.

52:37 - Hamed Nademi: machine learning or data analytics techniques can easily detect some cycles or a few seconds microsecond before Hamed Nademi: The incident, we can do some appropriate disconnections to avoid the total shutdown or huge power outage this was happened this actually a study, as you will see the perform for the vein form, I just explained to you, based on the real measurement in the field for the wind Hamed Nademi: Power plan in Oklahoma so and then the future ambition, as I said that, for example, I just emphasis on the California, in half of the 2019 to reach the 1 million solar rooftops and then on the top you see, Hamed Nademi: US also among the top five, six countries in terms of the deployment of the EVs electric vehicles and so on, but we know that there are a couple of challenges versus the system design analysis and then how to Hamed Nademi: modify our design processes in the real time operation real time manner, and then we need some tools to do that some different Hamed Nademi: analysis or synthesis way and then this kind of the challenges, or the items should be incorporated into the teaching and into the curriculum to actually combine the theoretical work with their Hamed Nademi: experiential learning that’s the key, and this is huge, this is actually the demand from the industry as well, so I’ll skip this kind of Hamed Nademi: slide so when it comes to the workforce development, the teaching style based on what I just explained, we are moving towards the Multi domain Hamed Nademi: areas, therefore, the students should be trained in the multitude to gain the Multi-domain expertise and then definitely partnership with their industries ,private sectors, regulatory agencies, and utilities or quite Hamed Nademi: reasonable to to to be established, and then I just end my talk with this slide this is for 2004 and then the National Academy of Hamed Nademi: Engineering in 2004 what they expected in that time by 2020 the engineer of the 2020 should be exactly what they highlighted the blue content, the computer-based design and then their students should actually Hamed Nademi: gain the skill set in terms of the large escape network devices and then system perspective right, but now we know that even we should move forward from system engineering to the Hamed Nademi: system integration so that’s the huge challenge when it comes to the renewable energy from the grid side, and also the electrified transportation so with that I just try to wrap up my my talk, so I would be glad to to interact with you in case of questions.

55:53 - EPSCoR Webinar: Thank you, Professor Nademi, that was fantastic.

55:59 - EPSCoR Webinar: I personally learned a lot we if anybody has questions go ahead and type them into the Q&A and we have about four minutes.

56:08 - EPSCoR Webinar: Thank you again for that wonderful presentation we are so lucky to have you on the New Mexico Smart Grid Center team.

56:16 - EPSCoR Webinar: let’s see while we’re waiting for questions to come in, I actually have one.

56:21 - EPSCoR Webinar: What do you feel the skill, what is the most important skill, besides the the system’s approach for an engineer of the future, to have EPSCoR Webinar: To succeed academically and professionally whether that’s a soft skill or or like just like hardware and new loop knowledge, what is that? Hamed Nademi: yeah regardless of whether it be more focused on the software, the program development and also to getting hands-on experience on the lab or Hamed Nademi: experiential learning the bus records the Multi disciplinary or multi domain skill sets for the students, and for that one for me to be as to be working in academia, is that, for example, the the senior design capstone design projects, the PhD says master it says it’s good to actually.

57:19 - Hamed Nademi: To to work on those kind of research projects and the teaching in the team vote manners. So, Hamed Nademi: For these kind of excuse definitely the computer science students should interact with the power, for example, electrical engineering power, engineering power, electronics power system students.

57:38 - Hamed Nademi: to learn more and then for me as a power, electronics, the person I need to gain more knowledge or information about the wireless communication techniques information technologies so it means that we ourselves should also interact more and more to each other so that’s the because Hamed Nademi: This is not this one scale fits everyone right, so therefore that the teaching and performing.

58:07 - Hamed Nademi: The research should be Hamed Nademi: conducted in the way to also bring the Multi disciplinary interdisciplinary expertise into the classes, for example.

58:17 - Hamed Nademi: What do I do, based on my experience in history, usually for the courses I assigned the final project, the final project, basically, is just one Hamed Nademi: very small segment of the the real application and then asked students to do the theoretical analysis and then do the simulations.

58:34 - Hamed Nademi: Try to validate those simulations and then Hamed Nademi: See, for example, the effects of changing that parameters, for example, that was exactly the root cause for the incident happened, for example, intervene for some part of the war, so in this way also it’s a good thing for the students to be more motivated because Hamed Nademi: Sometimes there are some curriculum or more pure maths or complicated or is not something encouraging or pleasant for students, but if they recognize that they have to gain this knowledge Hamed Nademi: that’s something they need, by the end of the graduation to get a really good job or to advance to the from the undergrad to graduate from master to Ph.

D. whatever they will decide to do that Hamed Nademi: is to also this this this concept this tool this simulation tool this modeling approach is something I have to gain because perfectly that’s the demand in the future, and then they can enhance their strains and then Hamed Nademi: In assigning, were gaining doors kind of skill sets but, for me, as a person to offering the course also in some aspect, I have to change the way Hamed Nademi: I used to talk to teach or, for example, I learned in the past as well, so we need to also be more up to date to to see what’s going on on the industry sector because some of the challenges also still are kind of struggling for for industry sector that’s why the partnership and Hamed Nademi: Establishing some summer jobs, internships is quite interesting for the bus academy and also the industry to include and engage more and more students into the programs.

60:26 - EPSCoR Webinar: We have just one question that I want to get to even though we’re right at time and I think you partially answered it already but EPSCoR Webinar: I’m going to ask it, and if you give us a quick response that would great Dr. Selena Connelly wants to know what are you doing at NMSU to engage your students in the kind of training, you described.

60:45 - Hamed Nademi: yeah, for example, for me, all the course assignments are based on the as much as I can, based on the real application are real challenges, or at least I can simulate those challenges to be more appropriate with the homework Hamed Nademi: And then.

61:00 - Hamed Nademi: The thesis for the students and then final project, so the final project is more or less at least they can do some simulations level because they can Hamed Nademi: digest or comprehend the theory by doing a simulation validate their design and then at simultaneously they’re working with the new tools simulation tools and then Hamed Nademi: The simulation tools, I usually encourage your students, there could be those ones are widely used in industry.

61:36 - EPSCoR Webinar: That is an outstanding approach and I hope that more professors take it take it on, because that is what we need.

61:42 - yeah. EPSCoR Webinar: Thank you, I want to say before we sign off, I want to say thank you so much for your time and your talk, we are super excited to have you, and this will be available on YouTube once we get it transcribed so everybody knows.

61:59 - EPSCoR Webinar: and the last thing I want to say is, I want to plug the May webinar which is with Rusty Nail, and he will be doing OPAL-RT for beginners but once again before we sign off, thank you, EPSCoR Webinar: Dr. Hamid Nademi and have a wonderful day everybody I hope.

62:17 - Hamed Nademi: Thank you very much, everyone, but you can always ask questions in case of any until your point or comments, thank you very much, have a great rest of the day bye bye.

62:27 - Isis Serna: Thank you. Isis Serna: bye guys. .